Internet Marketing Glossary: A List Of Digital Terms You Need To Know – 2020 Ready (Part 5: Coding and Programming)

This Internet Marketing Glossary is a comprehensive digital marketing jargon glossary.

Coding and Programming

 

Angular

Angular, or AngularJS is a structural Javascript framework with the main purpose of simplification. It assists the developers in creating applications.

It lets you use HTML as the template language and extend its syntax to convey your application’s elements plainly and concisely. It has features like: two-way binding (models changing the views and vice versa), templating (embedding), RESTful API handling, AJAX handling, dependency injection, modularization, etc.

With Angular, you are able to do the following:

  1. Create a navigation menu that responds to user input via a touch or a click by integrating the framework with HTML and CSS
  2. Create a SPA or Single Page Application to provide a more fluid experience in web browsing

AngularJS is created upon the principle that, when it comes to building UIs and software components, declarative code is better than imperative.

API

Application Programming Interface, or API for short, involves a particular set of rules, protocols, and tools that are used in setting up application software.

API is the needed specifications and codes that software programs need to be able to communicate with each other. They enable computer programming to run smoothly. It is the skeleton that a programmer uses in setting up a computer program. The specifications for API can take various forms such as data, routines, object classes, structures, remote calls or variables. API can be used for a web-based system like database system, operating system, software library, or computer hardware.

In simple terms, API is what helps software programs facilitate communication between different programs just like user interface enhances interaction between computers and humans. APIs make it possible for one to cut and paste a snippet such as LibreOffice document into another template like Excel spreadsheet.

Examples of different types of APIs are POXIS, C++Standard Template Library, Microsoft Windows API, and Java APIs.

APIs can best be seen as windows, doors, or levers which prevent a program’s internal functions from being completely exposed to the world. They save resources, time, and also prevent legal entanglements from being slammed on the programmer.

Bootstrap (CSS)

Bootstrap is an open-source, front-end web framework that is used in designing web applications and websites for free.

It consists of CSS- and HTML-based design templates for forms, typography, navigation, buttons, and other interface components. Optionally, bootstrap may include making use of JavaScript extensions. It basically focuses on front-end development, unlike other web frameworks.

Bootstrap which was originally named Twitter Blueprint has its roots from Twitter. It was developed by Jacob Thornton in an effort to encourage and help internal tools work consistently. According to Mark Otto, it was basically a way the company wanted to share and also document design assets and patterns within the company.

Why are bootstraps important?

  • Bootstraps have responsive features that make it easy for tablets, phones, and desktops to adjust to CSS.
  • They are quite easy to use and can be applied by anyone with beginner CSS and HTML knowledge.
  • All modern browsers like Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer and Opera are compatible with bootstrap.
  • It has a mobile-first approach that makes up its framework.

How and where can bootstrap be downloaded?

  • Bootstrap can be downloaded from getboostrap.com
  • Another option is to get it as an included package from CDN.

CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (commonly referred to as CSS) is a language that describes the layout of HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) documents such as web pages, colors, fonts, margins, lines, background images, positions, etc.

CSS defines how HTML elements are to be shown on screen, paper, or any other media. It also controls the layout of various web pages all at once.

HTML vs CSS — In the plainest words possible, HTML lays the groundwork (structure content), and CSS does the styling and more (formatting structured content)!

To explain further, HTML was made to describe a web page’s content, like:

  • <h1>This is a headline</h1>
  • <p>This is a paragraph</p>

In the early beginnings of the world wide web, this was enough. However, as the opportunity for more content grew with tons of people using the internet growing nonstop, the web developers (and designers) started to think of adding a layout to online files. More and more components were added such as font and color attributes, which led to World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) creating CSS.

By creating CSS, the web development field grew and provided significant advantages to web design such as countless advanced and stylish techniques, application of various layouts to various media-types, and more accurate control of layout, to name a few.

Dynamic Website

Unlike a static (fixed) page, a dynamic website is generated in real-time. This includes web scripting codes like PHP (HyperText Processor, or Personal Home Page) or ASP (Active Server Pages).

A dynamic website is easier to maintain than a static one. Static pages contain unique content, which means they must be opened, edited, and published manually every time a change is to be made. Dynamic sites, however, access data from a database. If a developer wants to update the contents of a dynamic page, he just needs to update the database record. This method is easier for sites that have hundreds or thousands of pages.

Static sites use “.htm” or “.html.” Dynamic ones use “.php,” “.asp,” or “.jsp.”

Hexcode

A hex code is a code that the programmers use when they are communicating with computers. “Hex” meaning 6, and code representing the numeric values that determine a color.

For example, if the programmer decides to use a dark blue color, this would be represented as the hexcode #0000BB.

The hex code uses the hexadecimal numeral system which contains 16 symbols, otherwise known as base 16.

To accurate dictate color as best as possible, the numeral system used consists of only ten numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The continuation of the values then change to the first six letters of the alphabet: A,B,C,D,E and F. 0 being the lowest value, and F representing the highest value.

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML, is the “mother tongue” of the world wide web. It is the language for defining a web page’s structure (otherwise known as “markup”).

It was invented in 1990 by scientist Tim Berners-Lee. Its original aim was to simplify how scientists at various universities could gain access to each other’s research files.

HTML is a language that enables us to present data or information on the Internet.

With HTML, we are able to:

  • Publish online files with headings, paragraphs, texts, lists, tables, photos, etc.
  • Recover online data through hypertext links
  • Create forms that is required when performing transactions with services such as ordering products, setting up reservations, searching for data, etc.
  • Add spreadsheets, sound clips, video clips, and other applications straight to your document

Every foundation of a website is built on HTML, through elements. Elements provide structure to an HTML file and indicates to the browser your desired layout. Every element consists of a “tag”, which is a designation used to “mark up” the start < and end > of an element.

There are two kinds of tags – opening (<html>) and closing (</html>). The difference is the “/” to signify “end.”

Inline

An in-line is any element inside a program, message, or document. For instance, an HTML (HyperText Markup Language) inline code is anything that has been built into the webpage/website, instead of loading from an external file.

Most of the content on the site or page is inline, but the images and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) files load externally. When we talk about HTML or CSS, an inline “element” refers to any element in the same line as the code that surrounds it.

Here are some examples of CSS inline elements:

  • <a> Create an anchor
  • <b> Bold text
  • <br> Create a line break
  • <code> Designate text as code
  • <font> Change the font
  • <img> Show an image file
  • <q> Designate text as a short quotation
  • <s> Strikethrough text
  • <sub> Create subscript text
  • <u> Underline text

Javascript

JavaScript is a programming language that enables you to implement complex things on the web pages, such as showing real-time updates, interactive maps and graphics, moving objects, etc. In short, JavaScript makes your website interactive.

If HTML is used to structure content, and CSS is used to styling content, JavaScript is used to create dynamic content.

Let’s suppose we create a character named Mike. HTML would look like this:

<p>Player 1: Mike</p>

CSS would look like this:

Code:
p {
font-family: 'times new roman'; 
letter-spacing: 2px; 
text-transform: uppercase; 
text-align: center; 
border: 1px solid rgba(0,0,200,0.6); 
background: rgba(0,0,200,0.3); 
color: rgba(0,0,200,0.6); 
box-shadow: 1px 1px 2px rgba(0,0,200,0.4); 
border-radius: 8px; 
padding: 2px 8px; 
display: inline-block; 
cursor:pointer;}

JavaScript would look like this:

Code:
var para = document.querySelector('p');
para.addEventListener('click', updateName);
function updateName() {
var name = prompt('Enter a new name');
para.textContent = 'Player 1: ' + name;
}

If you’re curious as to what will happen, you might want to try it in GitHub!

The benefits of JavaScript:

  • You can store useful values inside the variables.
  • You can operate on pieces of texts (known as “strings”)
  • You can run the code in response to some events happening on a web page.

PHP

PHP, or Hypertext Preprocessor (a recursive acronym), is a server side scripting language that enhances static or dynamic websites and/or web applications. It was once known as Personal Home Pages.

A scripting language is used to interpret scripts (a set of programming instructions) at runtime. The goal of the scripts is to optimize the execution of an application.

Difference between scripting language (PHP) vs programming language (JavaScript):

  • Programming language is used to enhance complete applications; scripting language is mostly utilized for routine tasks.
  • In programming, the code needs to be compiled before it can be executed; in scripting, the code is normally executed without compiling.
  • A programming language doesn’t need to be embedded in other languages while a scripting language is normally embedded into other software domain.

To give you an example, a PHP would look something like this:

Code:
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
		<html>
			<head> 
			<title>Example</title> 
		</head><body>
			<?php 
			echo "My name is PHP and I'm a script!"; 
			?>
		</body> 
		</html>

You would notice that there aren’t lots of commands compared with CSS or JavaScript. This happens because the text above has an embedded PHP code (<?php and ?>). This code enables you to jump in and out of “PHP mode.”

Python

Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language that can be operated on any modern computer operating system.

Its high level of sophistication and dynamic semantics makes it available to be used for processing text, images, numbers, data, and almost anything that you can save on your computer. Presently, Python is used daily by Google Search Engine, YouTube, NASA, and New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).

Python is an “interpreted” language which means that it converted at runtime and not before the program runs. You can apply Python through lots of ways including:

  • Building an RSS Reader
  • Programming CGI for web applications
  • Creating calendars in HTML
  • Working with files
  • Reading and writing from and to MySQL or PostgreSQL

SQL

A Structured Query Language, otherwise known as SQL, is a programming language used for supervising relational databases and conducting numerous operations on the data in them. SQL is an ANSI and ISO standard and is the actual database query language.

Popular amongst start up founders, marketers, data scientists and online entrepreneurs for extracting (querying) their databases for information about their customers, products and much more.

Static HTML / Static Page

A static page or static website comprises of a series of HTML files, each representing a physical page of that website. Therefore, on a static site, each page counts as a separate HTML file.

For example, when you visit the “About Us” page, you are viewing at the actual “About Us” file.

If for instance, two pages contain similar content, they are both separate files which mean that if you want to update the header, you must do so for both pages. To know if a site is static, you can look at the page’s file extension and see “.htm” or .html.”

Advantages of Static Pages:

  • Speed – Since there are no database queries to run, no templating, and no processing of every request, the sites load faster than a dynamic page.
  • Version control – Having version control guarantees a quick fall-back plan in any case some changes need to be rolled back.
  • Security – Simply put, when a user’s input/authentication or multiple processes run code on every request, a potential security exploit could happen. This means that the fight for security boils down to constant patching of system for security updates, which works faster if you have a static page.

 

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